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Edited by: JG Nell, TC184 SC5 WG1 convener ( firstname.lastname@example.org.), updated 20 May 1996
Requirements and Methodology for Enterprise-Reference Architectures: A New Work Item Proposal
Reference Number: ISO TC184/SC5 N364
7 MAY, 1996
PROPOSER: International Federation for Automatic Control/International Federation of Information Processing (IFAC/IFIP) Task Force on Architectures for Enterprise Integration
Coordinated by: ( Ted Williams.), Purdue University.
The Task Force is an A-liaison group with TC184 SC5.
TITLE OF PROPOSAL: Statement of requirements and methodology for enterprise-reference architectures, including compliance criteria.
SCOPE: The requirements defined in the proposed standard describe an enterprise-reference architecture that models the whole life history of an enterprise integration project from its initial concept in the eyes of the entrepreneurs who initially developed it, through its definition, functional design or specification, detailed design, physical implementation or construction, and finally operation to obsolescence. The architecture must be a relatively simple framework upon which all the functions and activities involved in the aforementioned phases of the life of the enterprise-integration project can be mapped. It also will permit the tools used by the investigators or practitioners at each phase to be indicated. The architecture defined will apply to projects, products, and processes; as well as to enterprises.
PURPOSE AND JUSTIFICATION:
Feasibility: The IFAC/IFIP Task Force on Architectures for Enterprise Integration has studied enterprise-reference architectures since its establishment in 1990. In its work the Task Force has established the requirements to be satisfied by candidate enterprise-reference architectures and their associated methodologies to fulfill the needs of industry for such aids to enterprise integration. The result has been called GERAM, for Generalized Enterprise-Reference Architecture and Methodology, by the Task Force. The Task Force has shown that such an architecture is feasible and that several architectures presently available in the literature can already or potentially can fulfil such requirements.
Industry today is modifying manufacturing and business operations to assure:
- A better and faster response to customer requirements
- Ever higher quality for products
- More flexibility and faster response when introducing new products and in responding to marketplace needs.
At the same time there is pressure to increase company earnings while:
- Decreasing the environmental impact of factory operations
- Increasing personnel and environmental safety
- Improving working conditions and job satisfaction.
Many experts feel that computer-assisted integration of manufacturing and other business processes is the means to accomplish much of the goals mentioned. Unfortunately, integration generally has been presented with a strong technology view resulting in only partial success. Often, efforts to improve the level of integration have been too narrowly focused and have resulted in non-integratable islands of automation rather than the integrated whole originally envisioned.
This narrow focus did not relate directly to the business-critical success factors of the company; and thus, has not led to sufficient investment payoff. Likewise, the necessary human issues, organizational changes, and the process-technology improvements have not been coordinated with, and fully integrated into, the information-integration process.
There have been several major causes for this. Primarily this has occurred because the project planners have not recognized the breadth and magnitude of the overall effort and underestimated capital and other resources required.
Timeliness and Urgency: Each company contemplating a major computer-based integration effort should develop a master plan covering all of the anticipated effort required to integrate the whole of the company or factory operation. With this master plan, smaller projects within the monetary and human resources capability of the company can be initiated with the knowledge that the sum of this and all succeeding projects will contribute to higher levels of process integration. This will be possible provided that the requirements of the initial master-planning effort are followed in every subsequent project.
Aim and Benefits: This standard will provide a methodology and a number of checklists to assure that the master plan developed by a company integration-planning team is complete, accurate, properly oriented to future business developments, and carried out with the minimum of resources, personnel and capital. This needed methodology would:
This method must be underpinned by an enterprise-reference architecture that can model the whole life history of an enterprise-integration project from its initial concept in the eyes of the entrepreneurs who initially developed it, through its definition, functional design or specification, detailed design, physical implementation or construction, and finally operation to obsolescence. The architecture becomes a relatively simple framework upon which all the functions and activities involved in the aforementioned phases of the life of the enterprise-integration project can be mapped. It also permits the tools used by the investigations or practitioners at each phase to be indicated. Thus, the architecture and its associated methodology provides a means by which many, if not all of the difficulties mentioned above can be overcome.
- Describe the tasks to develop the master plan including its continual renewal
- Define the necessary quantity of information and data
- Specify the informational, the human-organizational, and the customer products and services interrelationships in the integration considered
- Consider and address management concerns
- Present relevant economic, cultural, and technological factors
- Detail the extent of computer support required.
Beneficiaries: The development of this standard of reference-architecture requirements will allow a specific architecture to be checked for completeness with respect to its current and future purpose, and the methodology so this standard will guide its development. These benefits will be most relevant to any group tasked with executing an infrastructure or process improvement, and so requiring to create a planning architecture of its own with a terminology that pertains specifically to the company, industry, and culture involved.
LIST OF DOCUMENTS TO BE CONSIDERED: See attachment A, List of References
RELATIONSHIP OF PROJECT TO ACTIVITIES OF OTHER INTERNATIONAL BODIES
LIAISON ORGANIZATIONS: IFAC/IFIP Task Force on Architectures for Enterprise Integration, CEN TC310 WG1
NEED FOR COORDINATION WITHIN ISO and IEC
PREPARATORY WORK: A draft of the requirements as envisioned by the Task Force is attachment B to this document.
CONCERNS KNOWN PATENT ITEMS: No
ATTACHMENT A: LIST OF REFERENCES
- IFAC/IFIP Task Force on Architectures for Integrating Manufacturing Activities and Enterprises, Architectures for Integrating Manufacturing Activities and Enterprises, Williams, T. J., editor, Technical Report, Purdue Laboratory of Applied Industrial Control, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA, March, 1993. Also published as: Williams, T. J, Bernus, P., Brosvic, J, Chen, D., Doumeingts, G., Nemes, L., Nevins, J. Vlietstra, J, Zoetekouw, D., and with the contributions of other members of the IFAC/IFIP Task Force on Architectures for Integrating Manufacturing Activities and Enterprises, "Architectures for Integrating Manufacturing Activities and Enterprises," Sydney, Australia, July 18-23, 1993 . The 12th IFAC World Congress ; same authors and same title, Computers in Industry, Vol. 24, No. 2-3, pp. 111-140, September 1994, and as Bernus, P., Nemes, L., and Williams, T. J., Architectures for Enterprise Integration, Chapman and Hall, London, 1996.
- Bernus, Peter and Nemes, Laszlo, "A Framework to Define a Generic Enterprise Reference Architecture and Methodology", Minutes, Ninth Workshop Meeting, IFAC/IFIP Task Force on Architectures for Enterprise Integration, Ottawa, Canada, August 25-26, 199Q; also in Proceedings of the International Conference on Automation, Robotics and Computer Vision (ICARV'94), Singapore, November 10-12, 1994.
- Bernus, Peter and Nemes, Laszlo, A Framework to Define a Generic Enterprise Reference Architecture and Methodology, Divisional Report Number, MTM 366, CSIRO division of Manufacturing Technology, Preston, Victoria, Australia 3072, undated. Also in Minutes, Tenth Joint Meeting, IFAC/IFIP Task Force on Architectures for Enterprise Integration, Singapore, November 7-8, 1994; Grenoble, France, December 13, 1994 . Revised Version of Item 2 above .
- Williams, T. J., and the Members of the Industry-Purdue University Consortium for CIM, The Purdue Enterprise Reference Architecture, Technical Report 154, Purdue Laboratory for Applied Industrial Control, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA, December 1991. Also published as: Williams, T. J., The Purdue Enterprise Reference Architecture, Instrument Society of America, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA, 1992; and Williams, T. J., "The Purdue Enterprise Reference Architecture", Computers in Industry, Vol. 24, No. 2-3, pp. 141-158, September 1994.
- Williams, T. J., editor, A Guide to Master Planning and Implementation for Enterprise Integration Programs, Technical Report 157, Purdue Laboratory for Applied Industrial Control, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA, June 1994.
- Li, Hong, A Formalisation and Extension of the Purdue Enterprise Reference Architecture and the Purdue Methodology, Ph. D. Thesis, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA, December 1994. Also published as Li, Hong and Williams, T. J., A Formalisation and Extension of the Purdue Enterprise Reference Architecture and the Purdue Methodology, Technical Report 158, Purdue Laboratory of Applied Industrial Control, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA, December 1994.
- Williams, T. J., and Li, Hong, A Specification and Statement of Requirements for GERAM, Report No. 159, Purdue Laboratory for Applied Industrial Control, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA, September 1995.
- Anonymous, AMICE Consortium, CIMOSA, Architecture Description, ESPRIT Project 5288, Milestone M-2, AD2.0, Vol. 2, Document R0443/1, Brussels, Belgium, August 24, 1992.
- AMICE Consortium, Open System Architecture, CIMOSA, AD 1.0, Architecture Description, ESPRIT Consortium AMICE, Brussels, Belgium, 1991.
- AMICE Consortium, Open System Architecture for CIM, Research Report of ESPRIT Project 688, Vol. 1, Springer-Verlag, 1989.
- ESPRIT Project 688, AMICE, Open System Architecture for CIM, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988.
- Doumeingts, G., Vallespir, B., Zanettin, M., and Chen, D., GRAI GIM Integrated Methodology, A Methodology for Designing CIM Systems, Version 1.0, LAP/GRAI, University Bordeaux I, France, May 1992.
- Doumeingts, G., Vallespir, B., Darracar, D., M., "Design Methodology for Advanced Manufacturing Systems", Computers in Industry, Vol. 9, pp. 271-296, December 1987.
- Williams, T. J., "Contributions of the Purdue Enterprise Reference Architecture and Methodology (PERA) to the Development of a General Enterprise Reference Architecture and Methodology (GERAM) ", in Proc. of the Third International Conference on Automation, Robotics and Computer Vision (ICARCV' 94), pp. 83-87, Singapore, Nov. 9, 1994.
- Sssenguth, Wolfram and Jochem, Roland, An Object-Oriented Method for Integrated Enterprise Modelling Applied for the Development of Enterprise Related CIM-Strategies and General CIM-Standards, Technical Report, Fraunhofer-Instut fr Produktionsanlagen Konstruktonstechnik (IPK), Berlin, Germany, 1992.
- Mertins, Kai, Sssenguth, Wolfram, and Jochem, Roland, "Integrated Information Modelling for CIM: An Object-Oriented Method for Integrated Enterprise Modelling", in Doumeingts, G., Browne, J., and Tomljanovich, M., editors, Proc. 4th International IFIP TC5 Conference on Integration Aspects, Computer Applications in Production and Engineering, CAPE 1991, pp. 315-323, Elsevier (North Holland), Bordeaux, France, Sep. 1991.
ATTACHMENT B: Requirements
Requirements (as envisaged by the IFAC/IFIP Task Force) which must be fulfilled by a candidate enterprise-reference architecture and methodology for it to be considered as a GERAM compliant architecture.
- Important definitions related to these requirements for the GERAM class of Enterprise Reference Architectures:
These requirements will deal only with type 2 architectures.
- GERAM (The Generalised Enterprise Reference Architecture Methodology) is a class of enterprise architectures and their associated methodologies as developed by the IFAC/IFIP Task Force on Architectures for Enterprise Integration [1-16] in their work during the period 1990-1996.
- An Enterprise can be any entity for which a definite mission can be defined. This term must include such related terms as extended enterprise, virtual enterprise or any other relevant terms.
- An architecture can be defined as a description (model) of the structure of a physical or conceptual object or entity. Thus there are two and only two types of architectures which deal with enterprise integration. These are:
- A type 1 architecture deals with the structural arrangement (design) of a physical system such as the computer control system part of an overall enterprise integration system; and
- A type 2 architecture deals with the structure arrangement (organisation) of the development and implementation of a project or program such as an enterprise integration or other enterprise development program.
- A candidate enterprise reference architecture and methodology for consideration as a GERAM (herein to be termed candidate architecture) must be a complete architecture and methodology, it must cover all of the details of the life cycle of any enterprise, entity or system from its initial concept throughout all aspects of its life history until and including its operation and final disposal. In this statement, completeness means that human factors (requirement 7), customer product and services (requirement iii) and information systems all must be considered.
- The candidate architecture must not be confined to any specific class or type of systems (discrete manufacture, information systems, CIM, etc.), e.g., it should be capable of handling the description and development of any conceivable enterprise , entity or system.
- The candidate architecture must be able to incorporate, present and utilise all of the useful capabilities of any and all pertinent. type 2 architectures. Thus, it should contain the total capability of all type 2 architectures proposed by the Task Force and others.
- The methodology associated with the candidate architecture must be able to provide all the necessary guidelines and management techniques for the initiation and pursuit of a project or program of development and operation of an enterprise or entity
Members of the GERAM class of enterprise-reference architectures and methodologies need not be based on any one single methodology and its accompanying architecture or framework. There are potentially many different methodologies and/or frameworks which might be used for it. The primary consideration should be total applicability and total capability in relation to these requirements.
Other necessities may require that any combinations of suitable frameworks and methodologies adequately presenting the capabilities of a GERAM may be used by different user groups, CIMOSA, GRAI-GIM, and PERA (for example) may suitably modify their current architectures (frameworks) and methodologies to satisfy the requirements of GERAM
- The framework or overall graphical form of any member of the GERAM class of enterprise reference architectures and methodologies should be able to assist users in the interpretation and use of the associated methodologies of that candidate architecture. It is recommended that this be done by showing graphically the place and relative applicability of:
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Edited by: JG Nell, TC184 SC5 WG1 convener ( email@example.com.), updated 20 May 1996